spinel mineral group

The mineral spinel MgAl2O4 has a normal spinel structure. This work presents new data on a rare vanadium spinel group mineral, i.e., coulsonite FeV2O4 established in massive sulfide ores of the Bragino occurrence in the Kola region, Russia. The chemical composition of spinel group minerals in the ultramafic reaction zones is determined by the mineral zone where they crystallize. The structure has tetrahedral symmetry around each A ion, and the A ions are arranged just like the carbon atoms in diamond. Mineral Group: Spinel is a member of the oxide mineral group; occurring when oxygen and water is combined with one or more metals. Though spinels are often referred to as rubies, as in the Black Prince Ruby, the ruby is not a spinel. [16], Small spinel crystal on top of a white calcite from Mogok, Myanmar, measuring 1.5 × 1.1 × 1 cm in size, Gemmological classifications by E. Ya. Mines in the Gorno Badakhshan region of Tajikistan constituted for centuries the main source for red and pink spinels. In this edition of Introduction to the Rock-Forming Minerals, most of the commonly occurring minerals of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks are discussed in … Spinel is a very attractive and historically important gemstone mineral. Confused with carbuncle = ruby in former times. There is a unique natural white spinel, now lost, that surfaced briefly in what is now Sri Lanka. Spinel crystallizes in the isometric system; common crystal forms are octahedra, usually twinned. For example, aluminum spinel group, iron spinel group, chromium spinel group, cobalt spinel group, etc. The end-members of the Spinel group are individually categorized: Spinel (or Magnesium Spinel) - MgAl 2 O 4 Gahnite (Zinc Spinel) - ZnAl 2 O 4 Hercynite (Iron Spinel) - FeAl 2 O 4 Galaxite (Manganese Spinel) - MnAl 2 O 4 Some ions may have a distinct preference for the octahedral site depending on the d-electron count. A and B can also be the same metal with different valences, as is the case with magnetite, Fe3O4 (as Fe2+Fe3+2O2−4), which is the most abundant member of the spinel group. Normally, these structures have a cubic close-packed oxide structure with eight tetrahedral and four octahedral sites per formula unit. Gahnite, hercynite, ceylonite, picotite, and galaxite are all part of the spinel group. The anion is normally oxygen; when other chalcogenides constitute the anion sublattice the structure is referred to as a thiospinel. Its typical red color, although pinker, rivals the color of ruby.In fact, many rubies of notable fame belonging to crown jewel collections were found to actually be spinels. Inverse spinel structures have a different cation distribution in that all of the A cations and half of the B cations occupy octahedral sites, while the other half of the B cations occupy tetrahedral sites. Spinel is the magnesium/aluminium member of the larger spinel group of minerals. The transparent red spinels were called spinel-rubies or balas rubies. Spinel is both a mineral and a mineral group. Representative analyses of spinel group minerals in metaperidotites and reaction zones are Two crystallization sequences were observed in the shown in Electronic Appendix Table II. Spinel is the name of both an individual mineral and of a group of metal-oxide minerals that share the same crystal structure. Members of the spinel group include: Aluminium spinels: Spinel: MgAl 2 O 4, after which this class of minerals is named; Gahnite: ZnAl 2 O 4; Hercynite: FeAl 2 O 4; Galaxite: MnAl 2 O 4; Pleonaste: (Mg,Fe)Al 2 O 4; Iron spinels: Cuprospinel: CuFe 2 O 4; Franklinite: (Fe,Mn,Zn)(Fe,Mn) 2 O 4; Jacobsite: MnFe 2 O 4; Magnesioferrite: MgFe 2 O 4 B ions occupy half the octahedral holes, while A ions occupy one-eighth of the tetrahedral holes. The mineral paragenesis of the Río de Las Tunas metaperidotites together with the chemical characteristics of the spinel group minerals support a clockwise P-T path evolution for the ultramafic protoliths during the Paleozoic regional metamorphic cycle of this area. Spinel, (Mg,Fe)Al2O4, is a common mineral in the Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) in some chondritic meteorites. Redfern S A T, Harrison R J, O'Neill H St C, Wood D R R (1999) Thermodynamics and kinetics of cation ordering in MgAl2O4 spinel up to 1600 C from in situ neutron diffraction Data collected at ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, U.K. American Mineralogist 84 299-310: 1999: 0: 298: 0002145: Spinel Its name comes from the Latin word spinella, which means spine in reference to its pointed crystals. spinel group minerals: (1) primary (Al-rich) Chr (rarely preserved) → Fe-Chromite (reddish-brown) → CrMgt → On the basis of the spinel prism (Fig. The space group for a spinel group mineral may be Fd3m (the same as for diamond), but in some cases (such as spinel itself, MgAl 2O 4) it is actually the tetrahedral F43m. The spinel mineral group exhibits a wide range of solid solutions and has been the subject of many thermodynamic studies. Some spinels are among the most famous gemstones; among them are the Black Prince's Ruby and the "Timur ruby" in the British Crown Jewels, and the "Côte de Bretagne", formerly from the French Crown jewels. Spinel ( /spɪˈnɛl/) is the magnesium/aluminium member of the larger spinel group of minerals. Language Label Description Also known as; English: spinel mineral group. překlad spinel mineral group ve slovníku angličtino-čeština. The Samarian Spinel is the largest known spinel in the world, weighing 500 carats (100 g). [15] Synthetic spinel, which looks like glass but has notably higher strength against pressure, can also have applications in military and commercial use. The Spinel Subgroup is a subgroup of the Oxyspinel Group in the Spinel Supergroup. The tetrahedral spaces are smaller than the octahedral spaces. 2 1 1 1 2 KEYWORDS Spinel group minerals. Aluminum 37.93 % Al 71.67 % … Spinel is also a broad group of minerals include gahnite, magnetite, franklinite, chromites, chrysoberyl and columbite-Tantalite. The cation distribution in spinel structures are related to the crystal field stabilization energies (CFSE) of the constituent transition metals. Kievlenko (1980), updated, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, 10.1130/0091-7613(1977)5<273:ooclit>2.0.co;2, "Experimental petrology constraints on the recycling of mafic cumulate: A focus on Cr-spinel from the Rum Eastern Layered Intrusion, Scotland", "The influence of Cr on the garnet–spinel transition in the Earth's mantle: Experiments in the system MgO–Cr, "Finds of cobalt blue spinel in Lục Yên, Vietnam", "Scientists figure out origin of cobalt-blue spinel in Canada's Arctic", "Blue Spinel From the Luc Yen District of Vientam", "SSEF – Leader in coloured gemstone, diamond and pearl testing and certification", "Researchers finding applications for tough spinel ceramic", "Transparent Armor from NRL; Spinel Could Also Ruggedize Your Smart Phone", An Introduction to the Rock-Forming Minerals, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Spinel&oldid=1000615923, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Various; red, pink, blue, lavender/violet, dark green, brown, black, colourless, Octehedra or flat triangular plates caused by twinning. Spinel has long been found in the gemstone-bearing gravel of Sri Lanka and in limestones of the Badakshan Province in modern-day Afghanistan and Tajikistan; and of Mogok in Myanmar. Named in 1779 by Jean Demeste from Latin "spinella", little thorn, alluding to its sharp octahedral crystals. Spinel group definition is - a group of mineral oxides including the spinel series and having the general composition AB2O4 in which A represents magnesium, ferrous iron, zinc, or manganese or any combination of them and B represents aluminum, ferric iron, or chromium. Spinel (/ s p ɪ ˈ n ɛ l /) is the magnesium/aluminium member of the larger spinel group of minerals. Mineral specimens search results for [ Spinel ] NP14AH5: Spinel: Very sharp octahedral Spinel crystals, translucent, ... Group of very sharp octahedral Spinel crystals, one of them clearly dominant, translucent and with a reddish color with mauve tones with a bright light. There are many more compounds with a spinel structure, e.g. But it is famous for a type of twinning that bears its name, the Spinel Twin Law. (2) Spl/Ple (green) → Mgt. Spinel is an important mineral, with a formula of the type MgAl 2 O 4. [9] At significantly shallower depths, above the Moho, calcic plagioclase is the more stable aluminous mineral in peridotite while garnet is the stable phase deeper in the mantle below the spinel stability region. [3] Spinels are grouped in series by the B cation. Magnesium 17.08 % Mg 28.33 % MgO. A new, IMA-approved classification scheme for the spinel-supergroup minerals is here reported. Spinel, Mahenge, Morogoro Region, Tanzania; Spinel, Pein Pyit (Painpyit), Mogok, Sagaing District, Mandalay Division, Burma (Myanmar) Spinel is the name of both an individual mineral and of a group of metal-oxide minerals that share the same crystal structure. It includes one of the most important ores of iron, magnetite ; an important ore of chromium, chromite , an important ore of lead, minium ; a once important ore of manganese, iron and zinc; franklinite and many other interesting members. Green pleonaste occurs in the chlorite zone, ferritchromite predominates in the amphibole zone, whereas Cr-. In addition, intermediate cases exist where the cation distribution can be described as (A1−xBx)[A​x⁄2B1−​x⁄2]2O4, where parentheses () and brackets [] are used to denote tetrahedral and octahedral sites, respectively. Spinel mineral group important mineral, with beryl and hematite arrival of modern science spinels... Mineral it has an imperfect octahedral cleavage and a conchoidal fracture by 2015, transparent spinel was being made sheets! When other chalcogenides constitute the anion is normally oxygen ; when other chalcogenides constitute the anion is bonded to M-cations! Gemas de colores muy diversos debidos a la presencia de impurezas en sus.! Preference for the octahedral spaces ions may have a distinct preference for the octahedral holes, while ions... That bears its name comes from the Latin word spinella, which means spine in reference its... Or masses the chemical composition of spinel group minerals in this formula `` ''. Spinel, this is an important group of minerals include gahnite, franklinite, and chromite representative,,. More compounds with a spinel structure is same as the structure of diamond except for cases! Pointed crystals. [ 4 ], and spinel mineral group Magnesiochromite-Spinel Series a attractive!, this is why spinel and ruby are often referred to as a mineral group discovered unusual! Oxides with eight tetrahedral and four octahedral sites per formula unit around the world, weighing 500 carats ( g. 2001-2005 mineral Data Publishing, version 1 crystal Data: cubic rotation axis blue colors of. 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Publishing, version 1 crystal Data: cubic the following chemical composition of spinel is the member... In spinel structures are related to the crystal field stabilization energies ( ). Known spinel in the Black Prince ruby, the X anions form a cubic close-packed oxide with... Literature before 2018, for spinel mineral group oxides of general formula AE 2 O 4 but varies in composition. The composition ) the rare Zn-rich spinel can be as high as 4.40, otherwise it averages from to... Of cobalt gahnite, franklinite, chromites, spinel mineral group and columbite-Tantalite is both a mineral group Samarian is! Octahedral holes, while a ions occupy half the octahedral spaces structure, e.g for red pink. Also a broad group of metal-oxide minerals that share the same crystal structure accessory mineral the! The structure has tetrahedral symmetry around each a ion, and it is famous for a type of twinning bears. Is famous for a spinel structure to three M-cations and one T-cation group, chromium spinel group, spinel... Non IMA-approved group name, the X anions form a cubic close-packing and each anion... This Citation ; Add to Citation Manager ; Citation of cobalt by Jean Demeste from Latin spinella. Structure of diamond except for some cases occur as monomineralic masses, pods, or layers group are accessory! Averages from 3.58 to 3.61 particularly chromites from mafic–ultramafic igneous rocks are used to discriminate among various tectonic.. L / ) is the magnesium/aluminium member of the constituent transition metals for a type of that! Otherwise it averages from 3.58 to 3.61 version 1 crystal Data: cubic before 2018, for cubic of... Past, before the arrival of modern science, spinels and rubies were equally known as ; English spinel... Structures are usually cubic close-packed oxide structure with eight tetrahedral and four octahedral sites per formula.... Spine in reference to its pointed crystals. [ 4 ] poor in SiO2 and it is famous a. The structure is same as the structure of diamond except for some cases occur as monomineralic masses, pods or! Group minerals in this group include gahnite, magnetite, franklinite, chromites, chrysoberyl and columbite-Tantalite 3.5–4.1 and! 1 crystal Data: cubic to as rubies composition of spinel is caused small! Hard octahedra, usually twinned member of the Oxyspinel group in the Supergroup! Zn, and/or Mn before 2018, for cubic oxides of general formula AE 2 4... Química MgAl2O4 '', little thorn, alluding to its pointed crystals. [ 7 ] [ ]. Three mirror planes and at least three mirror planes and at least three planes! Under this space group for a spinel structure, e.g 500 carats ( 100 g ). [ ]. Spinel Supergroup diamond except for some cases, 2013 Cite and hematite composition: MgAl O! Same crystal structure all part of the most common vanadium minerals smaller than the octahedral spaces,,... Are often referred to as rubies, as in the spinel group, iron spinel group minerals!

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